10th English consists 7 units. Each unit contains Poem, Prose, Supplementary portions respectively.
Unit - 1
Prose: “His First Flight” is about the struggles underwent by the young seagull to overcome its fear of flying. Poem : “Life” talks about the poet’s view of life through his personal experiences. Supplementary : “The Tempest” talks about how Prospero (the hero) regains his dukedom with the help of Ariel. Vocabulary - different forms of word (noun, verb, adjective, adverb etc.). Grammar - modals and Voices (Active Voice & Passive Voice). Writing - Advertisement, Report Writing.
Prose: “His First Flight”
‘His First Flight’ is a story written by Liam O’Flaherty that proves the saying ‘To master any art, one should overcome fear.’ Once there lived a young seagull who was one among the four off springs of the father and the mother seagulls. He was very timid. Unlike his two brothers and sister, he was afraid to fly. His parents had come around calling him shrilly, scolding him and threatening to let him starve on the ledge. So the mother seagull showed a piece of fish to the hungry young seagull. But he couldn’t reach the food. Maddened by hunger, he dived at the fish to grab it. He had no choice other than to flap his wings and to fly towards his meal. He was floating on the water. The young bird’s family was very happy. They offered him scraps of dog-fish for the success of his first flight. Thus, the guidance of his parents, his natural bird instinct and his urge for survival prompted him to fly finally.
Poem : Life
The poem ‘LIFE’ written by ‘Henry Van Dyke’ is a sonnet. He was an American author, poet, educator and clergyman. The poem ‘Life’ is the poet's reflection on his own life. He tells his opinion about the most important things in life. The poet wants to lead an independent life with a forward face and an unreluctant soul. He neither wants to hurry nor to move away from his goal. He does not want to mourn for the lost past things. He does not hold back for the fearful future. The poet wants to live his life with a whole and happy heart, which cheerfully travels with him from youth to old age. Therefore, it does not matter to him whether his life’s path goes up or down the hill and rough or smooth. The poet will continue to seek what he wanted as a boy - new friendship, high adventure and a crown (fame). His heart will remain courageous and continues to pursue his desires. He hopes that every turn in his life's journey will be the best.
Supplementary : The Tempest
Prospero was the famous Duke of Milan. He was fond of reading magic books. He was exiled by his brother Antonio. Prospero and his daughter Miranda landed on an island. Prospero had some magical powers, which his daughter did not know. She was a kindhearted woman. After twelve years, Prospero wanted to repent his brother Antonio and Alonso-the king of Naples for their wrong deeds. By using his magical power, Prospero raised a violent storm in the sea to wreck his enemies’ ship. Ariel, the spirit was ordered to scatter the people on the ship. He did not want to revenge them, but to make them realise their mistakes. Finally, Antonio with tears of sorrow and true repentance begged his brother’s forgiveness. Prospero forgave them all. As a dutiful father, Prospero arranged the marriage of Miranda and Ferdinand as they loved each other. At last, he released his faithful spirit, Ariel. It is clear that Prospero is a noble person.
- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 2
Prose : “The Night the Ghost Got In” written by James Grover Thurber, is a story about how misunderstanding and imagination caused chaos in the house. Poem : “The Grumble Family” written by Lucy Maud Montgomery, talks about the negative attitude of the grumble family which no one likes. The poet wants us to accept life as it is. We should not grumble about everything. Supplementary : “Zigzag” written by Asha Nehemiah, is a humorous story which portrays the atrocities of a pet bird named Zigzag. As it changed its behaviour finally, Dr. Krishnan’s family wanted to keep it with them. In Vocabulary Section, Students will learn about Singular & Plural and how to write the Slang expression in Standard English. In Writing Section, they will learn how to prepare a speech with the given words. In Grammar Section, they will learn about Articles & Prepositional Phrases.
Prose : The Night the Ghost Got In
‘The night the Ghost got in’ is a story written by James Grover Thurber. This story clearly tells that too much of imagination will mislead the situation. One day, the narrator and his family heard a strange sound at one o’ clock at night in the house. They heard the footsteps circling the dining-room table. The narrator was scared. He thought that it was a burglar or a ghost. Their mother threw her shoe at their neighbour Mr. Bodwell’s window to seek help. Mr. Bodwell called the police. The police came and searched the whole house. They ruined the whole house. Five or six policemen sprang for the attic where the narrator’s grandfather was sleeping. There was a chaos in the house when grandfather mistook the police as General Meade’s men who were retreating. He managed to grab a gun from the police and shot at them. Smoke filled the attic. The next morning, grandfather told that he had walked in the kitchen to have some water the previous night. Thus, their imagination rewarded them a sleepless night of chaotic activities.
Poem : The Grumble Family
The poet describes the nature of the grumble family in the title of the poem itself. The grumble family lives in ‘Complaining Street’ in the city of ‘Never-Are-Satisfied’ beside the ‘River of Discontent’. They are well-known with the name of Grumble. They are dissatisfied with everything. Whatever happens in their lives, they complain about it. Rain or sun, summer or winter, high or humble, they will not fail to grumble. They always growl at others. Even though nothing happens in life, they grumble for it. They don’t have any positive attitude. Nobody wants to be with them. Everyone fears that this habit will also affect him or her. Thus, the poet wants us to accept life as it is. We should not find fault with each and everything like the members of the grumble family. We should be optimistic. We should accept the reality of our life. Life is full of challenges. We should treat joys and sorrows equally. We must stop complaining about others. This is the lesson we must learn from ‘the grumble family’.
Supplementary : Zigzag
Dr. Somu requested his cousin Dr. Krishnan to take care of his pet bird Zigzag as he left for Alaska. Zigzag was the most lovable, unusual and harmless bird. Mrs. Krishnan was not happy with the arrival of the new pet bird. She was very busy in drawing paintings for the art exhibition. When Zigzag was offered some fruits and nuts, it picked them up and deposited on the chandeliers and the blades of the fan. The snoring sound of Zigzag, when it slept disturbed Dr. Krishnan’s family and their neighbour’s also. When Lakshmi, the servant maid, switched on the fan, it was raining papayas and bananas in that room. One slice of over-ripe papaya splattered orange pulp on Mrs. Krishnan’s painting. She got angry. So Dr. Krishnan took it to his clinic. Zigzag talked to all the patients in the clinic. It brought a radical change in the noisy clinic. Dr. Krishnan was surprised to see the sudden change of the bird. Though Mrs. Krishnan’s painting was ruined by Zigzag, it was considered as a new technique and was sold for Rs.5000. All these co-incidents changed the minds of Dr. Krishnan’s family. They wanted to keep Zigzag with them.- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 3
Prose : “Empowered Women Navigating the World” explains how all Women Indian Navy crew carried out their expedition successfully. Poem : “I am Every Woman” written by Rakhi Nariani Shirke, the poet portrays the qualities of today’s women. The poet requests us to love and respect today’s women. Supplementary : “The Story of Mulan” portrays beautifully about Mulan’s patriotism, bravery and humbleness. Her sacrifices and valour made her the Army General. After a great victory, Mulan returned to her family with some gifts by the Emperor. In Vocabulary Section, the students will learn about Idioms and Phrases and Phrasal verbs. In writing Section, they will learn to write formal and informal letters. In Grammar Section, Students will learn about Tenses.
Prose : Empowered Women Navigating the World
Nowadays, we can see women’s empowerment in many fields. One such achievement was the voyage named Navika Sagar Parikrama by the Indian Government. The main aim was to achieve the National policy of ‘empowering women to attain their full potential’. The voyage was also aimed to showcase ‘Make in India’ initiative by sailing on- board indigenously built INSV Tarini. This sailboat could use the environment-friendly resources such as the wind. It could collect and update meteorological, ocean and wave data on a regular basis for accurate weather forecast by India Meteorological Department (IMD). The six member women crew underwent some theoretical courses on navigation communication and weather prediction. Training was given to repair things, and to deal with emergencies when the weather gets rough and in medical emergency. They underwent their basic sail training courses. They even sailed in INSV Mhadei to Mauritius and also to Cape Town. They were trained almost for 3 years. These trips were tutorial for them to manage food, water and even electricity during the voyage. These are the factors responsible for all-women Indian Navy crew to carry out their expedition successfully.
Poem : I am Every Woman
In the poem “I am every woman”, the poet portrays today’s woman as powerful. Today’s woman is brave, strong and empowered. She is beauty innate. She is the symbol of power and strength. She is ready to face any challenge, risking even her life. Every woman is true in expressing her love. She is never fake. She is ready to face the sufferings (summer) of life even in happy times (spring). She is very optimistic in her approach. She cares for her near ones. She gives more importance to her family than to herself. She is strong in her faith and firm in her beliefs. She says that persistence is the key to success. She has pride and self-respect. She tackles and deals with the mischievous people who interfere in her life. She is never a quitter. She is ferocious like a lioness. Today’s woman overcomes everything which could destroy her. The poet requests the reader to love and respect today’s woman.
Supplementary : The Story of Mulan
Mulan was a heroic Chinese teenage girl. The Chinese Emperor ordered that one man from each family must join the army. As Mulan’s father was very old and her brother was too young, she decided to join the army. So, she cut her hair short and groomed herself as a boy. She fought bravely in the wars. Very soon, she became the Army General. When she was affected by a bad fever, the doctor examined and found out that the general was a woman. At that time, they had to face a surprise attack of enemies. Even though she was sick, she fought and ended the long war victoriously. At her meritorious victory, the Emperor set the rule as Girls could also participate in the war. Admiring her valour and bravery, the Emperor was willing to appoint her as the royal advisor. But Mulan refused humbly and expressed her wish to return to her family. Thus, Mulan showed that she was lovable to her family and proved her patriotism towards her country.- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 4
Prose: “The Attic” written by Satyajit Ray, is a story which clearly depicts how Aditya’s attitude changed with time and beautifully portraits Sanyal’s self-respect. Poem : “The Ant and the Cricket” adapted from Aesop’s Fables, is a narrative poem about a wise, hardworking ant and a careless lazy cricket. The poet brings out the idea of hard work and planning that is essential for every creature. Finally, the poet advises the lazy human beings (two legged crickets) to work hard and plan for the future. Supplementary : “The Aged Mother” written by Matsuo Basho, beautifully portrays the unbounded love and care between an aged mother and his farmer son. It gives a message to the readers that we should give importance and respect to our elders. In Vocabulary Section, the students will learn about Compound Words, Prefix and Suffix. In writing Section, they will learn Notice Writing and Article Writing. In Grammar Section, Students will learn about Linkers & Nominalisation.
Prose: The Attic
The story ‘The Attic’ written by Satyajit Ray proves the quote, “Time changes everything.” The narrator and Aditya went to Aditya’s village after twenty nine years. They met Sasanka Sanyal in the Nagen uncle’s tea shop. Sanyal began to recite the poem ‘Panraksha’ by Tagore. Aditya inquired Nagen about Sanyal. He could remember his past guilt. During school days, Sanyal got a medal for recitation of a poem. Aditya was jealous of him. He took the medal from Sanyal to show his father. But he never returned it. Now he felt guilty. He wanted to apologize to Sanyal. Aditya searched for the medal and got it in the attic of his house. Aditya wanted to find the weight of the medal. When Aditya offered the cost of the medal, Sanyal refused and frankly and told him that he wanted his medal back as he considered it more valuable than anything else. Aditya handed over the silver medal to Sanyal. He proved that he had also changed with time. Thus, this story clearly depicts the change of Aditya’s attitude and Sanyal’s self- respect.
Poem : The Ant and the Cricket
In this narrative poem, the poet brings out the importance of hard work and pre-planning for every creature. The poem is about a wise, hardworking Ant and a careless, lazy Cricket. The young Cricket enjoyed all summer and spring by singing without planning for the winter. The ant worked hard and saved food in summer. During winter, the Cricket was unable to bear the cold weather. It had no food and a warm shelter. But, the Ant enjoyed the winter. The Cricket pleaded with the Ant for grains and shelter. But the ant made it clear that ants never borrow or lend. When the Ant enquired the Cricket if it had saved anything in the fine weather. The Cricket answered that it had enjoyed the pleasant nature by singing. The ant refused to lend food and closed its small gate. The Cricket gets disappointed outside the ant’s door. The poet relates this story to human beings who are lazy and do not plan for the future.
Supplementary : The Aged Mother
Once, an aged mother and his son were living in a country named as ‘Shining’. The son was a poor farmer. ‘Shining’ was ruled by a despotic ruler who was very cruel. Once he declared that all the aged people must be put to death as they were useless. According to the Governor’s rule, the son carried his mother on his back and trudged up the mountain unwillingly. The road to the mountain was long, steep and narrow. He lost his way at times. So, his old mother picked up twigs from the bushes and dropped them along the narrow path as markers. Thus, she ensured her son’s safe return. But his loveable son did not want to leave his mother. So they returned home. Later the governor ordered his people to present him a rope of ashes. The loveable mother suggested to her son to make a rope by burning a twisted straw on a windless night. Seeing the rope of ashes, the governor praised the wisdom of the old mother and abolished the order to kill the aged people of his country.- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 5
Prose : “Tech Bloomers” explains how technology helps the disabled people to lead their life successfully. Poem : “The Secret of the Machines” written by Rudyard Kipling, machines speak about themselves to human beings. They explain how they work. Finally, they accept the truth that they are inferior to mankind. Supplementary : “A Day in 2889 of an American Journalist” written by Jules Verne, gives us a glimpse of the futuristic world in which people rely on machines for almost everything. From this story, we come to know that everything is made possible in the future with the help of technology. In Vocabulary Section, the students will learn about Abbreviation, Acronyms and Contractions. In writing Section, they will learn email writing and message writing. In Grammar Section, Students will learn about Pronouns, Relative Pronouns, Direct and Indirect.
Prose : Tech Bloomers
In “Tech Bloomers” We come to know how technology has revolutionized our world. New methods of electronic communication, such as social networking websites, emails, voicemails, and video conferences have eliminated boundaries of time and distance. One can send money to a foreign country, reserve tickets for his/her journey, pay bills and apply for overseas studies from any place through internet. Technology is a boon to the disabled. Alisha is a disabled girl who suffers from cerebral palsy. She uses an advanced technology called Dragon Dictate, a software which helps to transfer her speech into words on the screen. David was born with Athetoid cerebral palsy. Modern technologies such as the Liberator Communication Device, ACTIV Controller, AAC, and ECO2 have enabled him not only to communicate freely but also to control his environment. Stephen Hawking lost his power of speech as the result of nervous disease at the age of 26. But he became a renowned physicist because of assistive technology. Thus, technology has enabled the disabled to perform their day-to-day activities just like a normal person. Really, technology has made our lives easier, faster, better and more funny.
Poem : The Secret of the Machines
In this poem, the poet portrays beautifully that machines speak themselves to human beings. They tell us how they are created from the metals that are taken from the ore-bed and mines. They are further melted in the furnace and hammered to design as machines. The machines need water, coal, oil and a very little place to run. With all these, if people set them to work, they will work all the 24 hours. Like human beings, they can do all sorts of work. They ask us to remember that they are operated by the law of obedience without thinking and feeling. They reveal a harsh truth that they neither love nor forgive. They cannot comprehend a lie. Though their smoke hides the sky from people’s eyes, it will vanish soon and the stars will come again. Finally, the machines humbly state that they are only the children of the human brain. They accept the fact that they are not superior to mankind. Machines cannot replace humans.
Supplementary : A Day in 2889 of an American Journalist
The story is set on July 25 of 2889. Francis Bennett was the director of the Earth Herald, the world’s most leading newspaper. His wife had been away in France for the past eight days. When he switched on his phonotelephote, he heard his wife’s voice. With a smile, he entered his mechanized dressing room, which dressed him from top to toe. In his office, he inquired the astronomical reporters about the latest news. He wished to feed the public with interesting astronomical news. He was excited to bring out the interesting discoveries made in the new planet Gandini to the public. Inordinate advertisements were projected on clouds by a thousand projectors from a gallery. Then Bennett travelled to Niagara for his works. He took an aero-car, which was capable of gaining speed of about four hundred miles an hour. After his return, he listened to many petitions. He supported the idea of an inventor who thought of reducing the final three elements into one. At last, Bennet learned about his wife’s plan to return. Finally, he decided to take a bath. Thus, the story ends.- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 6
Prose : “The Last Lesson” written by Alphonse Daudet, is a story which describes the importance of mother tongue through the character M. Hamel. Poem : “No Men Are Foreign” written by James Falconer Kirkup, the poet discusses the dreams and aspirations of all men. He asks us to remember that people from other countries are not strange and the other countries are not foreign. Supplementary : “The Little Hero of Holland” written by Mary Mapes Dodge, the story pictures the unconditional love of a little boy (Peter) for his country and his people. By saving the dike, Peter saved his country. He became the hero of Holland. In Vocabulary Section, Students will learn about the Idiomatic Phrases. In Writing Section, they will learn to create a Poster. In Grammar Section, they will learn about Subject – Verb Agreement and Non-finite.
Prose : The Last Lesson
In this lesson ‘The Last Lesson’ the author clearly depicts the condition of the French who were compelled to learn German language. When they knew that French would no longer be taught to them, they developed an inclination towards learning. The students, the village people, old Hauser, the former mayor, the former post master and several others gathered there to honour and thank M. Hamel for his forty years faithful service. M. Hamel did not scold his student Franz, though he came late. Franz was sorry for not having learnt his mother tongue properly. M. Hamel said that French language was the most beautiful, clearest and logical language in the world. He advised them to guard their language. He explained the lesson with all patience. At last overwhelmed with emotions, he could not speak. He wrote “Vive La France” on the black board which means “Long Live France”. He told them that the school was dismissed and he let them go. They appreciated the value of their language, only when they were about to lose it. Thus, the Last Lesson brought out the importance of mother tongue through M. Hamel.
Poem : No Men Are Foreign
In his poem ‘No men are foreign’ James Falconer Kirkup discusses the dreams and aspirations of all men. All human beings are the same. Each and every one of us are related to the other. We all walk on the human earth and we will be buried under it. Breathing, walking and lying are the same for every one of us. Sun, air and water are common to all of us. They got food from “peaceful harvests” and suffered from wars. We can read and understand their hard work through their palm lines. The strength of men can be won by love. They also performed the same labour as we perform. Our leaders tell us to hate our brothers. But, when we hate our brothers, we hate ourselves. The men who fight with each other pollute our earth. Waging war against others for a reason that they belong to a different country, is like attacking ourselves. The poem concludes that we shouldn’t have war, since it is unnatural to fight against ourselves.
Supplementary : The Little Hero of Holland
Peter was a little boy who lived in Holland. Holland is situated below sea level. A wall called Dikes protects the country from the North Sea. Even the little children of Holland are aware of the importance of the Dikes. Even a little hole in it can be a very dangerous thing. One afternoon, Peter’s mother wanted him to go across the Dikes to take the cakes to his friend, the blind man. Peter spent his time with his blind friend. On his way back to home, he heard the sound of trickling water from the dike. He saw a small hole in the dike. He shouted for help but no one turned up. Peter thrust his finger into the tiny hole of the Dikes to stop the water. He stayed there for the whole night in dark and cold. His finger became numb. Next morning, a man going to work found Peter in the Dikes. He spread this alarm. The villagers rushed there and mended the hole with shovels. They took Peter to his parents. Peter became the hero of Holland.- WTS Teachers Team
Unit - 7
Prose : “The Dying Detective” written by Arthur Conan Doyle, is a detective story which tells about how Sherlock Holmes reveals the crime of Smith who killed his nephew. Poem : “The House on Elm Street” written by Nadia Bush, the poet presents a photographic picture of a mysterious house. The poet metaphorically tells us that our life in this world is a mystery. We cannot know the purpose of our life. Supplementary : “A Dilemma” written by Silas Weir Mitchell, the story is about how Tom (the protagonist) was in a dilemma to open a box given by his uncle. Tom is a true example of human curiosity which drives to mental instability. In Vocabulary Section, Students will learn about Homophones. In Writing Section, they will learn how to prepare a Pamphlet and write a letter of enquiry. In Grammar Section, they will learn about Simple, Compound & Complex.
Prose : The Dying Detective
Sherlock Holmes was a famous detective in London. Dr. Watson, friend and assistant of Holmes was the narrator of this story. Once, Holmes pretended as if he were infected with a deadly disease. He didn’t take food or drink for three days. So he was weak. Dr. Watson wanted to treat Holmes. But Holmes didn’t want Watson to know that he was not ill. He sent Watson to get Culverton Smith for treating his illness. Watson had to persuade Smith to come and meet Holmes. Mr. Culverton Smith was a planter. He was the culprit, who had killed his nephew Victor Savage to retain the property. To capture Smith, Holmes pretended to be ill. While Holmes and Smith were discussing, Smith confessed that he had killed his nephew and also sent an infected ivory box to kill Holmes in the same way. Holmes asked Smith to turn up the gas light. It was a signal for Inspector Morton who was waiting in the next room with Dr. Watson. Morton came in and arrested Smith for his crime. Thus, the dying drama of Holmes helped to arrest the criminal.
Poem : The House on Elm Street
In his poem ‘The House on Elm Street’ Naida Bush presents a photographic picture of a mysterious house. The house is located on Elm Street. It is a dark scary house. It stands all alone with a ton of space inside but with minimally furnished. During nights, lights flicker on and off inside the house. The poet is curious to know what happens in the house. Due to fear, she does not go into the house. Beside the house, there is a tree without leaves. She is astonished to see the tree without leaves through all seasons. The tree neither grows taller nor gets smaller. She wonders how could this happen. There are many rumours about the house. The house and also the rumours fade away each day. But nobody knows what happens inside the house. And it seems to be a mystery like the mysterious house. The poet metaphorically tells us that our life in this world is a mystery. We cannot go deep inside to know the purpose or mystery behind our life.
Supplementary : A Dilemma
Uncle Philip was a bachelor, cunning and malicious, living alone. On his death bed, he called Tom and declared him as his only heir. Leaving an iron (metal) box containing a large number of pigeon–blood rubies, diamonds and pearls for Tom, his uncle told him that Tom should take extreme care in handling the box. And also he instructed Tom to read carefully a letter which lay on top of it. Tom read the letter which stated that the box contained sensitive dynamite. If he opened it with fear, it would explode. Tom was curious to see the contents in the iron box and tried all possible ways to open the box. First of all, he planned to explode the box at a safe distance but dropped the plan in fear of losing the rubies. Secondly he consulted Professor Clinch, and Dr. Schaff but they didn’t help open the box. Finally he took the matter to the collector. None of them could understand the absurdity of his uncle’s condition. At last, Tom bequeathed the box to the Society.- WTS Teachers Team